|HOW DOES CAMBER AFFECT WHEEL ALIGNMENT?|
WHAT IS CASTER?
Caster is the tilting of the uppermost point of the steering axis either forward or backward, when viewed from the side of the vehicle. A backward tilt is positive and a forward tilt is negative. Caster influences directional control of the steering but does not affect the tire wear. Caster is affected by the vehicle height, therefore it is important to keep the body at its designed height. Overloading the vehicle or a weak or sagging rear spring will affect caster. When the rear of the vehicle is lower than its designated trim height, the front suspension moves to a more positive caster. If the rear of the vehicle is higher than its designated trim height, the front suspension moves to a less positive caster.
HOW DOES CASTER AFFECT WHEEL ALIGNMENT?
With too little positive caster, steering may be touchy at high speeds and wheel returnability may be diminished when coming out of a turn.
If one wheel has more positive caster than the other, that wheel will pull toward the center of the vehicle. This condition will cause the vehicle to pull or lead to the side with the least amount of positive caster.
|WHAT IS A TIRE PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEM?|
The Tire Pressure Monitoring System is designed to warn the driver when low-tire-pressure conditions exist. A sensor measures tire pressure and temperature, then transmits data to the tire-pressure monitor. If the pressure in one or more of your tires is 25 percent or more below the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure for tires, a warning indication will alert the driver.
Your Original Equipment TPMS sensor battery can last up to 10 years with normal use. When the TPMS battery fails, the sensor will need to be replaced.
How do you know that air pressure is low or whether the TPMS has malfunctioned?
If the Tire Pressure Monitor light comes on and stays solid with a check tire pressure, low tire pressure, or add air to tire message, then check and adjust all tire air pressures to the recommended levels. Next, drive the vehicle to turn the light off.
If the Tire Pressure Monitor light appears as a blinking yellow lamp for more than one minute and stays solid, then diagnostic service is needed. If your TPMS is not functioning properly, it cannot detect or signal a low-tire condition.
Pattern for front-wheel drive with same size front and rear nondirectional tires
Pattern for all-wheel/4-wheel/rear-wheel drive vehicles with same size front and rear nondirectional tires.
|Different Size Tires|
Pattern for different size tires on the front and rear and nondirectional tires.
|Toe Tire Wear|
Excessive wear on the inner or outer edge of the tire, commonly known as toe wear, suggests a wheel alignment issue. This typically produces a feathered wear pattern across both front tires.
|Camber Tire Wear|
Uneven wear on one side of a tire tread may occur when the tire is leaning due to camber misalignment.
|Center Tire Wear|
Center-wear occurs when a tire is over-inflated, resulting in the center of the tire wearing quicker than the edges.
|Cupping Tire Wear|
Cupping-wear occurs when a suspension/balance may be worn, bent or somehow compromised. You'll notice a diagonal scalloping pattern on the tire.
|Edge Tire Wear|
Edge-wear occurs when a tire is under-inflated, resulting in the edge of the tire wearing quicker than the center.